Zlatý kůň (The Golden Horse) is called a mountain with a cave system outside the Czech capital Prague. A popular tourist destination. In the 1950s, a skull, some bones and some stone tools were found inside the cave, and it appears to be very old.
On several occasions, researchers have attempted to date human remains with a carbon-14 method. However, they were unable to achieve reliable results. Only now has technology evolved so much that reliable dating is possible.
The magazine will be published this week Nature’s ecology and evolution New study. Among the authors are Thomas Higham in London, one of the world’s foremost experts on the carbon-14 method, and DNA researcher Johannes Krause at the Max Planck Institute for Scientific History in Jena, Germany.
Their results show That the woman in Zlatý kůň – who was of her kind – lived at least 45,000 years ago.
This means that she was one of the first to visit Europe. Leader. It was here long before the death of Neanderthals, and a few thousand years before the arrival of the Origenians – the group that became long-lived in Europe and forms part of our ancestry that we live here today.
The woman in Zlat k one was not one of the Aurignacians. She belonged to another previous migration wave. A separate small wave, before the more energetic waves, traveled from the Middle East to the West on the one hand, and on the other east towards Asia. It was part of the wave of immigration that eventually became extinct, without leaving any genetic traces in us who live in Europe today.
This also applies to people in the Batjo Kiro cave in present-day Bulgaria.
I wrote about Batjo Kiro and its residents here at DN in May last year, when the first scientific findings were published. The magazine is now published Temperate nature More comprehensive DNA analyzes of three individuals.
Among the authors Swedish DNA researchers Svante Papo and Pontus Skoglund, the former is active at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, and the latter at the Francis Crick Institute in London.
People lived in Batjo Kiro about 45,000 years ago, plus / minus 2,000 years. Thus they may have been contemporaries of the women in the Zlato Ku.
Like her, they represent their early wave of immigration to Europe that had no successors in us living here now. Instead, they had some genetic similarities to today’s Asians and Native Americans.
And like the women in Zlato-ko, they came here several thousand years before the death of Neanderthals.
In Batjo Kiro Cave Stone and jewelry tools were also found, including pendants on the bear’s teeth. These pieces of jewelry are reminiscent of those found in Neanderthals in France and are a few thousand years younger.
Jewelry is a strong argument in an ongoing debate among researchers, with some wanting to emphasize Neanderthals’ own ability to art, decoration, and symbolic thinking, while others believe jewelry is an imitation or relic like us – even if they have it found in Neanderthal caves.
The study of the new nature by Svante Pääbo, Pontus Skoglund and others also includes the analysis of the regenerative DNA of a cave individual in Romania called Pestera cu Oase. It is not clear if a person from Pestera cu Oase was a contemporary of them in Batjo Kiro and Zlatý kůň. The dating shows about 40 thousand years ago, but it was done with archaic methods and may be understated. In any case, it is evident that even the person in Pestera cu Oase, just like those in Batjo Kiro, had Neanderthals among their ancestors only a few generations away.
Encounters with Neanderthals appear to have been common in Europe 45,000 years ago, when the first pioneers of this species lived here, shortly before their decimation.